Justice was administered free of charge, by special officers appointed as judges and magistrates, but the king was supreme and the final arbiter in all civil and criminal cases.The monarchs prided themselves on the justness of their government. The Cilapatikaram mentions a Pandyan king who died of remorse on realizing his guilt of injustice. The officers appointed as judges were expected to be learned, straightforward, experienced and aged. Mortgage, lease, trust property, loans, breach of contract were some common sources of civil litigation, which had no time bar. Theft, adultery, forgery and treason were some types of criminal offences.
In the capital city, dispensation of justice was organized by the king in his own court, while in the villages, it was the elders that meted out justice. The committees of justice in the village assemblies were the Nyayattars and they met under ceremonial trees to conduct the trial and pronounce judgements. Trials were mostly characterized by elaborate judicial procedure, setting down of evidence and judgement. However, there have been instances where the trial-by-ordeal system was practiced, in which the defendant was put through some form of torture and if he escaped unscathed, he was deemed innocent.
The punishments were very severe and hence crimes were rare: one caught in the act of burglary, adultery or spying was given the death penalty and one giving false testimony would have his tongue cut off. Prisons were used to hold not only the guilty but also captives taken in war. Prisoners were chained and were watched over by warders. It was common practice to release prisoners on festive occasions and in some cases, they were asked to go into sea for pearl-fishing.
Military and warfare
The king was the chief commander of the army and usually led his army in the battlefield. The military was said to be fourfold : the infantry, the cavalry, the elephantry and the chariotry. A wide variety of war weapons filled the military arsenal including shields, swords, spears, tridents, maces, bows and arrows.A successful war could lead to annexation of territories or the submission of the enemy, who would then recognize the hegemony of the victor and start paying tributes.
Battles of this age were of two kinds – those fought in the open and those fought around a fort under siege. The Maduraikanci gives a vivid picture of the sophisticated defence mechanism that was in place to protect the fort of Madurai during siege warfare. There were four gates to the fort surmounted by high towers, with massive walls built of rough-hewn stone. Surrounding the fort on its outside was a deep moat and around the moat was a thick jungle of thorny trees. The roads leading to the gates of the fort were wide enough to permit several elephants to pass abreast. There were all kinds of weapons and missiles concealed on the walls on both the sides of the entrance, ready to be discharged on an enemy. Many curious engines were mounted on the battlements to shoot arrows or to fling stones on those that besiege them. There were machines like the fishing rod and angle to catch and drag up those that approach the wall and machines like iron fingers to seize and tear them to pieces. There were also furnaces from which hot oil and molten metal might be poured on those that attempt to scale the wall and iron spokes and spears to shove down those that might succeed in mounting the ramparts. While besieging a fort, the method adopted by the invading army was to first cut open a wide passage through the jungle around the fort, then fill up the moat to enable the army to approach the walls and finally scale the wall with ladders or break open the gates with the help of elephants trained to do the work.
When the battle lines were drawn up, the elephants were placed first, the chariots and cavalry were ranged behind them and the infantry occupied the rear. The chariots and elephants carried the royalty and the generals that led the army and were armed with lances or swords and shields adorned with gold. The infantry consisted of archers and lancers who also carried swords and large bucklers. The cavalry carried lighter arms than the infantry. Since the elephants always formed the most formidable part of an army, it was deemed a great feat of valour to kill an enemy elephant.
Revenue and expenditure
The main sources of royal revenue were taxes, tributes, customs duties and tolls. Taxes were called Karai or Irai, tributes called Tirai and customs tolls and duties were called Sungam. Levy of taxes as well as expenditure was at the discretion of the king who decided the rate and incidence of taxes, as well as any remissions. Land tax, paid in money or in kind, and income tax, equal to one-sixth of an individual's income, were the major types of taxes collected. Other sources of revenue include tributes paid by feudal subordinates, war booty presents by loyal and visiting subjects, treasure troves besides land revenue, cess and forced gifts. Tolls were collected on the trunk-roads used by caravans and at the frontier of each kingdom. Customs were levied at seaports where the imported goods landed. The export of locally manufactured goods such as textiles, pearls etc. earned a lot of foreign exchange for the royal treasury. The king took one-tenth of the total earnings from pearl-diving and sale of pearls as his royalty.
The items incurring expenditure for the king include the military, gifts to poets and temples, maintenance of educational and health services, building infrastructure such as roads and irrigation and the palace household expenses. Tax remission also deprived the king of some revenue. Expenses incurred in connection with the recruitment and maintenance of the army and waging of war were a considerable drain on the treasury. The palace consisted of not only the members of the royal family but a vast crowd of merchants, officials and entertainers all of whom had to be compensated for their services – this was also a major item of expenditure.